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2. Choosing the Right Installation Medium


2.a. Hardware Requirements


Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your architecture.

The PPC Architecture

Check the following requirements before you continue with the Gentoo installation:

  • You need at least 2 GB of free disk space
  • If you do not use prebuilt packages, you need at least 300 MB of memory (RAM + swap), if you do use prebuilt packages you need at least 64 MB of memory to boot the system.
  • For the PowerPC architecture, you can install Gentoo/PPC on NewWorld machines having a Power or PowerPC microprocessor, including but not limited to G3, G4 or G5 powered Apple computers such as the iMac, the eMac, the iBook, the PowerBook, Xserve, PowerMac, and bPlan's Pegasos II. We also provide limited support for OldWorld systems, IBM (RS/6000, iSeries, pSeries, ...) and Amiga systems. Be sure to read up on the Gentoo PPC FAQ before you begin.

2.b. Make your Choice


Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a Gentoo base system.

The installation media we will describe are:

  • Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD
  • Gentoo's Universal LiveCD

Every single media has its advantages and disadvantages. We will list the pros and cons of every medium so you have all the information to make a justified decision. But before we continue, let's explain our three-stage installation.

The Three Stages

Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three stage tarball files. The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile yourself. The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system from a bootstrapped "semi-compiled" state. The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been built for you. As we will explain later, you can also install Gentoo without compiling anything (except your kernel and some optional packages). If you want this, you have to use a stage3 tarball.

Now what stage do you have to choose?

Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This makes stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great installation method for those who would like to know more about the inner workings of Gentoo Linux.

A stage1 installation can only be performed when you have a working Internet connection.

Stage1 Pros and Cons
+ Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
+ Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing
+ Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo
- Takes a long time to finish the installation
- If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
- Not suitable for networkless installations

Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose for your particular stage2 tarball.

A stage2 installation can only be performed when you have a working Internet connection.

Stage2 Pros and Cons
+ You don't need to bootstrap
+ Faster than starting with stage1
+ You can still tweak your settings
- You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1
- It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo
- You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap
- Not suitable for networkless installations

Choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining stability). stage3 is also required if you want to install Gentoo using prebuilt packages or without a network connection.

Stage3 Pros and Cons
+ Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system
+ Suitable for networkless installations
- You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already
- You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2

Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system with the new optimization settings.

Now take a look at the available installation media.

Gentoo LiveCDs

Note: The Gentoo/PPC 2004.2 release is not official, so you will not find them on the mirrors. All of our self-organised mirrors are currently down. The only chance you can get the LiveCDs is via BitTorrent.

Note: It is known that the Pegasos II will not boot the 2004.2 LiveCD. Please use the 2004.1 LiveCD.

The Gentoo LiveCDs are bootable CDs which contain a self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD. During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.

All LiveCDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. However, some LiveCDs also contain all necessary source code so you are able to install Gentoo without a working network configuration.

Now what do these LiveCDs contain?

Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD

This is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and continue with the Gentoo installation. It does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a single stage1 file), source code or precompiled packages. For example the ppc variant of this LiveCD can be found in the livecd subdirectory and is called install-ppc-minimal-2004.2.iso.

Minimal LiveCD Pros and Cons
+ Smallest download
+ Suitable for a complete architecture
+ You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the net
- Contains no stages, no Portage snapshot, no GRP packages and therefore not suitable for networkless installation

Gentoo's Universal LiveCD

Gentoo's Universal LiveCD is a bootable CD suitable to install Gentoo without networking. It contains a stage1 and several stage3 tarballs (optimized for the individual subarchitectures). For example the ppc variant of this CD is called install-ppc-universal-2004.2.iso and can be found in the livecd subdirectory.

If you take a closer look on our mirrors, you will see that we provide Gentoo Package CDs. This CD (which isn't bootable) only contains precompiled packages and can be used to install software after a succesfull Gentoo Installation. To install Gentoo, you only need the Universal LiveCD, but if you want, Mozilla, KDE, GNOME etc. without having to compile every single one of them, you need the Packages CD too. For example the G4 (a subarchitecture of ppc) Packages CD is called packages-g4-2004.2.iso and can be found in the appropriate subdirectory (g4/).

You only need the Packages CD if you want to perform a stage3 with GRP installation.

Universal LiveCD with Packages CD Pros and Cons
+ Packages CD is optimized to your architecture and subarchitecture
+ Packages CD provides precompiled packages for fast Gentoo installations
+ Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network connection.
- Huge download

2.c. Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo LiveCD

Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs

You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the wrong section). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen LiveCD. We previously discussed the several available LiveCDs, but where can you find them?

Visit one of our mirrors and go to releases/ppc/2004.2/livecd, which is the path where the LiveCD(s) of your choice are located. Inside that directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are full CD images which you can write on a CD-R.

In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as install-ppc-minimal-2004.2.iso.md5). You can check the MD5 checksum with the md5sum tool under Linux/Unix or md5sum for Windows.

As long as Mac OS X does not support md5sum you have to use the md5 capability of openssl. Therefore type in

Code Listing 3.1: md5sum with the help of openssl

$ openssl md5 /path/to/iso
This could take some time depending of the size of the ISO and your CPU

Now compare this output with the appropriate file found on the server where you downloaded the ISO (the file will end with .md5). If it is the same, the ISO image downloaded correctly. Be sure you have not mounted it (e.g. with Disk Copy) yet!

More information are available in our PPC FAQ.

To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss cdrecord, k3b and the MacOS burning possibilities here; more information can be found in our Gentoo FAQ and the PPC FAQ.

  • With cdrecord, you simply type cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc (replace /dev/hdc with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed by the path to the ISO file :)
  • With k3b, select Tools > CD > Burn Image. Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click Start.
  • With Mac OS X Panther, launch Disk Utility from Applications/Utilities, select Open from the Images menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and select Burn in the Images menu.
  • With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch Disk Copy from Applications/Utilities, select Burn Image from the File menu, select the ISO and click the Burn button.

2.d. Booting the PPC LiveCD(s)

Default: Apple/IBM

On NewWorld machines place the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and reboot the system. When the system-start-bell sounds, simply hold down the 'C' until the CD loads.

If you have an OldWorld Mac the bootable portion of the livecd can't be used. Instead you need to download BootX and have a working MacOS installed on your system. You need to copy the BootX Extension from the unpacked archive-file into the Extensions Folder and make a new directory called Linux Kernels in the System Folder. In the next step you need to copy the G3 kernel and the initrd.img.gz from the LiveCD into the Linux Kernels directory. Then reboot the system and wait for BootX to load. After BootX loaded you still have to set up a few items. In the options dialog you need to check Use Specified RAM Disk and select the initrd.img.gz which you put in the Linux Kernels directory. The ramdisk size should be set to at least 32000. Furthermore the kernel argument needs to be set to rw init=/linuxrc cdroot. Eventually you are able to boot the LiveCD when you select Linux on Startup.

After the LiveCD loaded, you will be greeted by a friendly welcome message and a boot: prompt at the bottom of the screen.

At this prompt you are able to select a kernel for the subarchitecture you use. We provide G3, G4 and G5. All kernels are built with support for multiple CPUs, but they will boot on single processor machines as well.

You are also able to tweak some kernel options at this prompt. The following table lists the available boot options you can add:

Boot Option Description
video This option takes one of the following vendor-specific tags: radeonfb, rivafb, atyfb, aty128 or ofonly. You can follow this tag with the resolution and refreshrate you want to use. For instance video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75. If you are uncertain what to choose, ofonly will most certainly work.
nol3 Disables level 3 cache on some PowerBooks (needed for at least the 17")
debug Enables verbose booting, spawns an initrd shell that can be used to debug the LiveCD
sleep=X Wait X seconds before continuing; this can be needed by some very old SCSI CD-ROMs which don't speed up the CD quick enough
bootfrom=X Boot from a different device

At this prompt, hit enter, and a complete Gentoo Linux environment will be loaded from the CD. Continue with And When You're Booted....

Alternative: Pegasos

On the Pegasos simply insert the CD and at the SmartFirmware boot-prompt type boot cd /boot/pegasos root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=gcloop cdroot. If you need any special boot options you can append them to the command-line. For instance boot cd /boot/pegasos root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=gcloop cdroot video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75 mem=256M.

And When You're Booted...

You will be greeted by a root ("#") prompt on the current console. You can also switch to other consoles by pressing Alt-fn-F2, Alt-fn-F3 and Alt-fn-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing Alt-fn-F1.

If you are installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, use loadkeys to load the keymap for your keyboard. To list the available keymaps, execute ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386. Do not use the keymaps in ppc or mac as they are for ADB-based OldWorld machines.

Code Listing 4.1: Listing available keymaps

(PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. The mac/ppc keymaps provided
 on the LiveCD are ADB keymaps and unusable with the LiveCD kernel)
# ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386

Now load the keymap of your choice:

Code Listing 4.2: Loading a keymap

# loadkeys be-latin1

Now continue with Extra Hardware Configuration.

Extra Hardware Configuration

When the LiveCD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases, it may not auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.

In the next example we try to load the 8139too module (support for certain kinds of network interfaces):

Code Listing 4.3: Loading kernel modules

# modprobe 8139too

Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance

If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk performance using hdparm. With the -tT options you can test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a more precise impression):

Code Listing 4.4: Testing disk performance

# hdparm -tT /dev/hda

To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment yourself) which use /dev/hda as disk (substitute with your disk):

Code Listing 4.5: Tweaking hard disk performance

Activate DMA:                                       # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda
Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:  # hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda

Optional: User Accounts

If you plan on giving other people access to your installation environment or you want to chat using irssi without root privileges (for security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change the root password.

To change the root password, use the passwd utility:

Code Listing 4.6: Changing the root password

# passwd
New password: (Enter your new password)
Re-enter password: (Re-enter your password)

To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by its password. We use useradd and passwd for these tasks. In the next example, we create a user called "john".

Code Listing 4.7: Creating a user account

# useradd -m -G users john
# passwd john
New password: (Enter john's password)
Re-enter password: (Re-enter john's password)

You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using su:

Code Listing 4.8: Changing user id

# su - john

Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing

If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the installation, make sure you have created a user account (see Optional: User Accounts). Then press Alt-F2 to go to a new terminal and log in.

If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run links2 to read it:

Code Listing 4.9: Viewing the on-CD documentation

# links2 /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html

However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using links2 as well, but only after having completed the Configuring your Network chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the document):

Code Listing 4.10: Viewing the Online Documentation

# links2

You can go back to your original terminal by pressing Alt-F1.

Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon

If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password (only do that if you fully trust that user).

To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:

Code Listing 4.11: Starting the SSH daemon

# /etc/init.d/sshd start

To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with the chapter on Configuring your Network.

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Page updated November 4, 2004

Summary: You can install Gentoo in many ways. We describe how to install Gentoo using one of our LiveCDs.

Sven Vermeulen

Daniel Robbins

Chris Houser

Jerry Alexandratos

Seemant Kulleen
Gentoo x86 Developer

Tavis Ormandy
Gentoo Alpha Developer

Jason Huebel
Gentoo AMD64 Developer

Guy Martin
Gentoo HPPA developer

Pieter Van den Abeele
Gentoo PPC developer

Joe Kallar
Gentoo SPARC developer

John P. Davis

Pierre-Henri Jondot

Eric Stockbridge

Rajiv Manglani

Jungmin Seo

Stoyan Zhekov

Jared Hudson

Colin Morey

Jorge Paulo

Carl Anderson

Jon Portnoy

Zack Gilburd

Jack Morgan

Benny Chuang


Joshua Kinard

Tobias Scherbaum

Lars Weiler

Jochen Maes

Grant Goodyear

Gerald J. Normandin Jr.

Donnie Berkholz

Ken Nowack

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