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2. Choosing the Right Installation Medium
2.a. Hardware Requirements
Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
The PPC Architecture
Check the following requirements before you
continue with the Gentoo installation:
You need at least 2 GB of free disk space
If you do not use prebuilt packages, you need at least 300 MB of memory (RAM +
swap), if you do use prebuilt packages you need at least 64 MB of memory to boot the system.
For the PowerPC architecture, you can install Gentoo/PPC on NewWorld machines
having a Power or PowerPC microprocessor, including but not limited to G3, G4
or G5 powered Apple computers such as the iMac, the eMac, the iBook, the PowerBook,
Xserve, PowerMac, and bPlan's Pegasos II. We also provide limited
support for OldWorld systems, IBM (RS/6000, iSeries, pSeries, ...) and Amiga
systems. Be sure to read up on the Gentoo
PPC FAQ before you begin.
2.b. Make your Choice
Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
Gentoo base system.
The installation media we will describe are:
- Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD
- Gentoo's Universal LiveCD
Every single media has its advantages and disadvantages. We will list
the pros and cons of every medium so you have all the information to
make a justified decision. But before we continue, let's explain our
The Three Stages
Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three stage tarball files.
The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
yourself. The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
build the entire system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for
building the entire system from a bootstrapped "semi-compiled" state.
The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
been built for you. As we will explain later, you can also install
Gentoo without compiling anything (except your kernel and some optional
packages). If you want this, you have to use a stage3 tarball.
Now what stage do you have to choose?
Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the
optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
initially enabled on your system. This makes stage1 installs good for
power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
installation method for those who would like to know more about the
inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
A stage1 installation can only be performed when you have a working
||Pros and Cons
Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
||Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing
||Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo
||Takes a long time to finish the installation
If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
Not suitable for networkless installations
Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
for your particular stage2 tarball.
A stage2 installation can only be performed when you have a working
||Pros and Cons
||You don't need to bootstrap
||Faster than starting with stage1
||You can still tweak your settings
||You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1
||It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo
||You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap
Not suitable for networkless installations
Choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
stability). stage3 is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
||Pros and Cons
||Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system
||Suitable for networkless installations
||You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already
||You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2
Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
with the new optimization settings.
Now take a look at the available installation media.
The Gentoo/PPC 2004.2 release is not official, so you will not find them on the
mirrors. All of our self-organised mirrors are currently down. The only chance
you can get the LiveCDs is via BitTorrent.
It is known that the Pegasos II will not boot the 2004.2 LiveCD. Please use the
The Gentoo LiveCDs are bootable CDs which contain a
self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
All LiveCDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. However, some
LiveCDs also contain all necessary source code so you are able to install
Gentoo without a working network configuration.
Now what do these LiveCDs contain?
Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD
This is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole purpose is to boot the
system, prepare the networking and continue with the Gentoo installation. It
does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a single stage1 file),
source code or precompiled packages. For example the ppc variant of this
LiveCD can be found in the livecd subdirectory and is called
||Pros and Cons
||Suitable for a complete architecture
You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
Contains no stages, no Portage snapshot, no GRP packages and therefore not
suitable for networkless installation
Gentoo's Universal LiveCD
Gentoo's Universal LiveCD is a bootable CD suitable to install Gentoo without
networking. It contains a stage1 and several stage3 tarballs (optimized for the
individual subarchitectures). For example the ppc variant of this CD is called
install-ppc-universal-2004.2.iso and can be found in the
If you take a closer look on our mirrors, you will see
that we provide Gentoo Package CDs. This CD (which isn't
bootable) only contains precompiled packages and can be used to install software
after a succesfull Gentoo Installation. To install Gentoo, you only
need the Universal LiveCD, but if you want OpenOffice.org, Mozilla, KDE, GNOME
etc. without having to compile every single one of them, you need the Packages
CD too. For example the G4 (a subarchitecture of ppc) Packages CD is
called packages-g4-2004.2.iso and can be found in the appropriate
You only need the Packages CD if you want to perform a stage3 with GRP
|Universal LiveCD with Packages CD
||Pros and Cons
||Packages CD is optimized to your architecture and subarchitecture
Packages CD provides precompiled packages for fast Gentoo installations
Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
2.c. Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo LiveCD
Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs
You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
wrong section). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
LiveCD. We previously discussed the several available LiveCDs, but where can you
Visit one of our mirrors and go to
releases/ppc/2004.2/livecd, which is
the path where the LiveCD(s) of your choice are located. Inside that
directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are full CD images
which you can write on a CD-R.
In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
install-ppc-minimal-2004.2.iso.md5). You can check the MD5 checksum
with the md5sum tool under Linux/Unix or md5sum for Windows.
As long as Mac OS X does not support md5sum you have to use the md5
capability of openssl. Therefore type in Terminal.app:
Code Listing 3.1: md5sum with the help of openssl
$ openssl md5 /path/to/iso
Now compare this output with the appropriate file found on the server where you
downloaded the ISO (the file will end with .md5). If it is the same, the ISO
image downloaded correctly. Be sure you have not mounted it (e.g. with Disk
More information are available in our PPC FAQ.
To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss cdrecord,
k3b and the MacOS burning possibilities here; more information can
be found in our Gentoo FAQ and
the PPC FAQ.
With cdrecord, you simply type cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc (replace
/dev/hdc with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
by the path to the ISO file :)
With k3b, select Tools > CD > Burn Image. Then
you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
With Mac OS X Panther, launch Disk Utility from
Applications/Utilities, select Open from the
Images menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
select Burn in the Images menu.
With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch Disk Copy from
Applications/Utilities, select Burn Image from the
File menu, select the ISO and click the Burn button.
2.d. Booting the PPC LiveCD(s)
On NewWorld machines place the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and reboot the system. When
the system-start-bell sounds, simply hold down the 'C' until the CD loads.
If you have an OldWorld Mac the bootable portion of the livecd can't be used.
Instead you need to download BootX and have a working
MacOS installed on your system. You need to copy the BootX Extension from
the unpacked archive-file into the Extensions Folder and make a new
directory called Linux Kernels in the System Folder. In the next step you
need to copy the G3 kernel and the initrd.img.gz from the LiveCD
into the Linux Kernels directory. Then reboot the system and wait for
BootX to load. After BootX loaded you still have to set up a few items. In the
options dialog you need to check Use Specified RAM Disk and select the
initrd.img.gz which you put in the Linux Kernels directory. The
ramdisk size should be set to at least 32000. Furthermore the kernel
argument needs to be set to rw init=/linuxrc cdroot. Eventually you are
able to boot the LiveCD when you select Linux on Startup.
After the LiveCD loaded, you will be greeted by a friendly welcome message and a
boot: prompt at the bottom of the screen.
At this prompt you are able to select a kernel for the subarchitecture you use.
We provide G3, G4 and G5. All kernels are built with
support for multiple CPUs, but they will boot on single processor machines as
You are also able to tweak some kernel options at this prompt. The following
table lists the available boot options you can add:
This option takes one of the following vendor-specific tags:
radeonfb, rivafb, atyfb, aty128 or
ofonly. You can follow this tag with the resolution and refreshrate
you want to use. For instance video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75. If you are
uncertain what to choose, ofonly will most certainly work.
Disables level 3 cache on some PowerBooks (needed for at least the 17")
Enables verbose booting, spawns an initrd shell that can be used to debug
Wait X seconds before continuing; this can be needed by some very old SCSI
CD-ROMs which don't speed up the CD quick enough
Boot from a different device
At this prompt, hit enter, and a complete Gentoo Linux environment will be
loaded from the CD. Continue with And When You're
On the Pegasos simply insert the CD and at the SmartFirmware boot-prompt type
boot cd /boot/pegasos root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=gcloop
cdroot. If you need any special boot options you can append them to the
command-line. For instance boot cd /boot/pegasos root=/dev/ram0
init=/linuxrc looptype=gcloop cdroot video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75 mem=256M.
And When You're Booted...
You will be greeted by a root ("#") prompt on the current console. You can also
switch to other consoles by pressing Alt-fn-F2, Alt-fn-F3 and Alt-fn-F4. Get
back to the one you started on by pressing Alt-fn-F1.
If you are installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, use
loadkeys to load the keymap for your keyboard. To list the available
keymaps, execute ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386. Do not use the keymaps in
ppc or mac as they are for ADB-based OldWorld
Code Listing 4.1: Listing available keymaps
# ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386
Now load the keymap of your choice:
Code Listing 4.2: Loading a keymap
# loadkeys be-latin1
Now continue with Extra Hardware Configuration.
Extra Hardware Configuration
When the LiveCD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases, it may
not auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some
of your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules
In the next example we try to load the 8139too module (support for
certain kinds of network interfaces):
Code Listing 4.3: Loading kernel modules
# modprobe 8139too
Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance
If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
performance using hdparm. With the -tT options you can
test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
more precise impression):
Code Listing 4.4: Testing disk performance
# hdparm -tT /dev/hda
To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
yourself) which use /dev/hda as disk (substitute with your
Code Listing 4.5: Tweaking hard disk performance
# hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda
# hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda
Optional: User Accounts
If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
environment or you want to chat using irssi without root privileges (for
security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
the root password.
To change the root password, use the passwd utility:
Code Listing 4.6: Changing the root password
To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
its password. We use useradd and passwd for these tasks.
In the next example, we create a user called "john".
Code Listing 4.7: Creating a user account
# useradd -m -G users john
# passwd john
You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
Code Listing 4.8: Changing user id
# su - john
Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing
If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
installation, make sure you have created a user account (see Optional: User Accounts). Then press Alt-F2 to
go to a new terminal and log in.
If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
links2 to read it:
Code Listing 4.9: Viewing the on-CD documentation
# links2 /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html
However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using links2
as well, but only after having completed the Configuring your Network
chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
Code Listing 4.10: Viewing the Online Documentation
# links2 http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-ppc.xml
You can go back to your original terminal by pressing Alt-F1.
Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon
If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
(only do that if you fully trust that user).
To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
Code Listing 4.11: Starting the SSH daemon
# /etc/init.d/sshd start
To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
the chapter on Configuring your Network.
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