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2. Booting the Universal Installation CD

Content:

2.a. Hardware Requirements

Introduction

Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to successfully install Gentoo on your box.

Hardware Requirements

Apple NewWorld Machines Power/PowerPC microprocessors (G3, G4, G5) such as iMac, eMac, iBook PowerBook, Xserver, PowerMac
Apple OldWorld machines Apple Machines with an OpenFirmware revision less than 3, such as the Beige G3s, PCI PowerMacs and PCI PowerBooks. PCI based Apple Clones should also be supported.
Genesi's Pegasos Pegasos I/II, Open Desktop Workstation
IBM RS/6000, iSeries, pSeries
Memory At least 64 MB
Diskspace 1.5 GB (excluding swap space)
Swap space At least 256 MB

Be sure to read the Gentoo PPC FAQ for help with some common installation related issues or if you're unsure as to just what's in that PowerPC machine you've got sitting on your desk right now.

2.b. The Gentoo Universal Installation CD

Introduction

Gentoo Linux can be installed using a stage3 tarball file. Such a tarball is an archive that contains a minimal environment from which you can succesfully install Gentoo Linux onto your system.

Installations using a stage1 or stage2 tarball file are not documented in the Gentoo Handbook - please read the Gentoo FAQ on these matters.

Gentoo Universal Installation CD

An Installation CD is a bootable medium which contains a self-sustained Gentoo environment. It allows you to boot Linux from the CD. During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers are loaded. The Gentoo Installation CDs are maintained by Gentoo developers.

There currently are two Installation CDs available:

  • The Universal Installation CD contains everything you need to install Gentoo. It provides stage3 files for common architectures, source code for the extra applications you need to choose from and, of course, the installation instructions for your architecture.
  • The Minimal Installation CD contains only a minimal environment that allows you to boot up and configure your network so you can connect to the Internet. It does not contain any additional files and cannot be used during the current installation approach.

Gentoo also provides a Package CD. This is not an Installation CD but an additional resource that you can exploit during the installation of your Gentoo system. It contains prebuilt packages (also known as the GRP set) that allow you to easily and quickly install additional applications (such as OpenOffice.org, KDE, GNOME, ...) immediately after the Gentoo installation and right before you update your Portage tree.

The use of the Package CD is covered later in this document.

2.c. Download, Burn and Boot the Gentoo Universal Installation CD

Downloading and Burning the Installation CD

You can download the Universal Installation CD (and, if you want to, the Packages CD as well) from one of our mirrors. The Installation CDs are located in the releases/ppc/2006.0/ppc32/installcd directory; the Package CDs are located in the releases/ppc/2006.0/ppc32/packagecd directory.

Inside those directories you'll find ISO-files. Those are full CD images which you can write on a CD-R.

After downloading the file, you can verify its integrity to see if it is corrupted or not:

  • You can check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (for instance with the md5sum tool under Linux/Unix or md5sum for Windows). Verifying MD5 checksums with Mac OS X is described in the Gentoo PPC FAQ.
  • You can verify the cryptographic signature that we provide. You need to obtain the public key we use (0x17072058) before you proceed though.

To fetch our public key using the GnuPG application, run the following command:

Code Listing 3.1: Obtaining the public key

$ gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 0x17072058

Now verify the signature:

Code Listing 3.2: Verify the cryptographic signature

$ gpg --verify <signature file> <downloaded iso>

To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss cdrecord and K3B here; more information can be found in our Gentoo FAQ.

  • With cdrecord, you simply type cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc <downloaded iso file> (replace /dev/hdc with your CD-RW drive's device path).
  • With K3B, select Tools > CD > Burn Image. Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click Start.

Default: Booting the Installation CD with Yaboot

On NewWorld machines place the Installation CD in the CD-ROM and reboot the system. When the system-start-bell sounds, simply hold down the 'C' until the CD loads.

After the Installation CD loaded, you will be greeted by a friendly welcome message and a boot: prompt at the bottom of the screen.

We provide one generic kernel, ppc32. This kernel is built with support for multiple CPUs, but it will boot on single processor machines as well.

You can tweak some kernel options at this prompt. The following table lists some of the available boot options you can add:

Boot Option Description
video This option takes one of the following vendor-specific tags: nvidiafb, radeonfb, rivafb, atyfb, aty128 or ofonly. You can follow this tag with the resolution refresh rate and color depth you want to use. For instance, video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75-32 will select the ATI Radeon frame buffer at a resolution of 1280x1024 with a refresh rate of 75Hz and a color depth of 32 bits. If you are uncertain what to choose, and the default doesn't work, video=ofonly will most certainly work.
nol3 Disables level 3 cache on some PowerBooks (needed for at least the 17")
dofirewire Enables support for IEEE1394 (FireWire) devices, like external harddisks.
dopcmcia If you want to use PCMCIA devices during your installation (like PCMCIA network cards) you have to enable this option.

To use the above options, at the boot: prompt, type ppc32 followed by the desired option. In the example below, we'll force the kernel to use the OpenFirmware framebuffer instead of the device specific driver.

Code Listing 3.3: Force the use of the OpenFirmware framebuffer

boot: ppc32 video=ofonly

If you don't need to add any options, just hit enter at this prompt, and a complete Gentoo Linux environment will be loaded from the CD. Continue with And When You're Booted....

Alternative: Booting the Installation CD on a Pegasos

On the Pegasos simply insert the CD and at the SmartFirmware boot-prompt type boot cd /boot/menu. This will open a small bootmenu where you can choose between several preconfigured video configs. If you need any special boot options you can append them to the command-line just like with Yaboot above. For example: boot cd /boot/pegasos video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75 mem=256M. The default kernel options (in case something goes wrong and you need it) are preconfigured with console=ttyS0,115200 console=tty0 init=/linuxrc looptype=squashfs loop=/image.squashfs cdroot root=/dev/ram0.

Alternative: Booting the Installation CD with BootX

If you have an OldWorld Mac the bootable portion of the livecd can't be used. The most simple solution is to use MacOS 9 or earlier to bootstrap into a Linux environment with a tool called BootX.

First, download BootX and unpack the archive. Copy the the BootX Extension from the unpacked archive into Extensions Folder and the BootX App Control Panel into Control Panels, both of which are located in your MacOS System Folder. Next, create a folder called "Linux Kernels" in your System folder and copy the ppc32 kernel from the CD to this folder. Finally, copy ppc32.igz from the Installation CD boot folder into the MacOS System Folder.

To prepare BootX, start the BootX App Control Panel. First select the Options dialog and check Use Specified RAM Disk and select ppc32.igz from your System Folder. Continue back to the initial screen and ensure that the ramdisk size is at least 32000. Finally, set the kernel arguments as shown below:

Code Listing 3.4: BootX kernel arguments

cdroot root=/dev/ram0 init=linuxrc loop=image.squashfs looptype=squashfs console=tty0 

Note: The kernel parameters in the yaboot section above are also applicable here. You can append any of those options to the kernel arguments above.

Check once more to make sure the settings are correct and then save the configuration. This saves typing just in case it doesn't boot or something is missing. Press the Linux button at the top of the window. If everything goes correctly, it should boot into the Installation CD. Continue with And When You're Booted...

And When You're Booted...

You will be greeted by a root ("#") prompt on the current console. You can also switch to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing Alt-F1. Due to the keyboard layout, you may need to press Alt-fn-Fx on Apple machines.

If you are installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, use loadkeys to load the keymap for your keyboard. To list the available keymaps, execute ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386. On NewWorld machines or the Pegasos do not use the keymaps in ppc or mac as they are for ADB-based OldWorld machines.

Code Listing 3.5: Listing available keymaps

(PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. The mac/ppc keymaps provided
 on the Installation CD are ADB keymaps and unusable with the Installation CD 
 kernel)
# ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386

Now load the keymap of your choice:

Code Listing 3.6: Loading a keymap

# loadkeys be-latin1

Now continue with Extra Hardware Configuration.

Extra Hardware Configuration

When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases, it may not auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.

In the next example we try to load the airport module. This module supports only the old Airport cards (802.11b). Airport Extreme (802.11g) is not supported on the InstallCD due to restrictions on firmware distribution.

Code Listing 3.7: Loading the airport module

# modprobe airport

On older iMacs, sometimes the network card is not detected properly. These use the BMAC driver:

Code Listing 3.8: Loading the bmac module

# modprobe bmac

Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance

If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk performance using hdparm. With the -tT options you can test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a more precise impression):

Code Listing 3.9: Testing disk performance

# hdparm -tT /dev/hda

To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment yourself) which use /dev/hda as disk (substitute with your disk):

Code Listing 3.10: Tweaking hard disk performance

Activate DMA:                                       # hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda
Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:  # hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda

Optional: User Accounts

If you plan on giving other people access to your installation environment or you want to chat using irssi without root privileges (for security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change the root password.

To change the root password, use the passwd utility:

Code Listing 3.11: Changing the root password

# passwd
New password: (Enter your new password)
Re-enter password: (Re-enter your password)

To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by its password. We use useradd and passwd for these tasks. In the next example, we create a user called "john".

Code Listing 3.12: Creating a user account

# useradd -m -G users john
# passwd john
New password: (Enter john's password)
Re-enter password: (Re-enter john's password)

You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using su:

Code Listing 3.13: Changing user id

# su - john

Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing

If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the installation, make sure you have created a user account (see Optional: User Accounts). Then press Alt-F2 to go to a new terminal and log in.

If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run links or even links -g for a graphical framebuffer browser to read it:

Code Listing 3.14: Viewing the on-CD documentation

# links /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html

However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using links as well, but only after having completed the Configuring your Network chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the document):

Code Listing 3.15: Viewing the Online Documentation

# links http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-ppc.xml

You can go back to your original terminal by pressing Alt-F1.

Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon

If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password (only do that if you fully trust that user).

To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:

Code Listing 3.16: Starting the SSH daemon

# /etc/init.d/sshd start

To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with the chapter on Configuring your Network.


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Page updated August 9, 2006

Summary: Using our Universal Installation CD you can boot up your system into a running environment that allows you to install Gentoo.

Sven Vermeulen
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Roy Marples
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Daniel Robbins
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Chris Houser
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Jerry Alexandratos
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Seemant Kulleen
Gentoo x86 Developer

Tavis Ormandy
Gentoo Alpha Developer

Jason Huebel
Gentoo AMD64 Developer

Guy Martin
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Pieter Van den Abeele
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Gentoo SPARC developer

John P. Davis
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Pierre-Henri Jondot
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