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2. Elegir el medio de instalación correcto
2.a. Hardware Requirements
Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
The AMD64 Architecture
Check the following requirements before you continue with the Gentoo
You need at least 1 Gb of free disk space
If you do not use prebuilt packages, you need at least 300 Mb of memory (RAM +
You should check the Gentoo
AMD64 Project Page before proceeding.
2.b. Make your Choice
Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
Gentoo base system.
The installation media we will describe are:
- Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD
- Gentoo's Universal LiveCD
Every single media has its advantages and disadvantages. We will list
the pros and cons of every medium so you have all the information to
make a justified decision. But before we continue, let's explain our
The Three Stages
Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three stage tarball files.
The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
yourself. The stage1 tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
build the entire system from scratch. The stage2 tarball is used for
building the entire system from a bootstrapped "semi-compiled" state.
The stage3 tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
been built for you. As we will explain later, you can also install
Gentoo without compiling anything (except your kernel and some optional
packages). If you want this, you have to use a stage3 tarball.
Now what stage do you have to choose?
Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the
optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
initially enabled on your system. This makes stage1 installs good for
power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
installation method for those who would like to know more about the
inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
A stage1 installation can only be performed when you have a working
||Pros and Cons
Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
||Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing
||Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo
||Takes a long time to finish the installation
If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
Not suitable for networkless installations
Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
for your particular stage2 tarball.
A stage2 installation can only be performed when you have a working
||Pros and Cons
||You don't need to bootstrap
||Faster than starting with stage1
||You can still tweak your settings
||You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1
||It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo
||You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap
Not suitable for networkless installations
Choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
stability). stage3 is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
||Pros and Cons
||Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system
||Suitable for networkless installations
||You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already
||You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2
Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
with the new optimization settings.
Now take a look at the available installation media.
The Gentoo LiveCDs are bootable CDs which contain a
self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
All LiveCDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. However, some
LiveCDs also contain all necessary source code so you are able to install
Gentoo without a working network configuration.
Now what do these LiveCDs contain?
Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD
This is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole purpose is to boot the
system, prepare the networking and continue with the Gentoo installation. It
does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a single stage1 file),
source code or precompiled packages. For example the amd64 variant of this
LiveCD can be found in the releases/amd64/2004.1/livecd directory
and is called install-amd64-minimal-2004.1.iso.
||Pros and Cons
||Suitable for a complete architecture
You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
Contains no stages, no Portage snapshot, no GRP packages and therefore not
suitable for networkless installation
Gentoo's Universal LiveCD
Gentoo's Universal LiveCD is a bootable CD suitable to install Gentoo without
networking. It contains a stage1 and a stage3 tarball (optimized for AMD64).
For example the amd64 variant of this CD is called
install-amd64-universal-2004.1.iso and can be found in the
If you take a closer look on our mirrors you will see
that we also provide a Gentoo Package CD. This CD (which isn't
bootable) only contains precompiled packages and can be used to install software
after a succesfull Gentoo Installation. To install Gentoo, you only
need the Universal LiveCD, but if you want OpenOffice.org, Mozilla, KDE, GNOME
etc. without having to compile every single one of them, you need the Packages
CD too. The AMD64 Packages CD is called packages-amd64-2004.1.iso.
You only need the Packages CD if you want to perform a stage3 with GRP
|Universal LiveCD with Packages CD
||Pros and Cons
||Packages CD is optimized to your architecture and subarchitecture
Packages CD provides precompiled packages for fast Gentoo installations
Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
2.c. Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo LiveCD
Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs
You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
wrong section). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
LiveCD. We previously discussed the several available LiveCDs, but where can you
Go to the main Gentoo directory on any of our mirrors. You will find the Gentoo LiveCDs in
the releases/amd64/2004.1/livecd directory. Inside that
directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are full CD images
which you can write on a CD-R.
In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
install-amd64-minimal-2004.1.iso.md5). You can check the MD5
checksum with the md5sum tool under Linux/Unix or md5sum for Windows.
Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
.asc). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
Listado de Código 3.1: Obtaining the public key
$ gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 17072058
Now verify the signature:
Listado de Código 3.2: Verify the cryptographic signature
$ gpg --verify <signature file> <downloaded iso>
To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss cdrecord and
K3B here; more information can be found in our Gentoo FAQ.
With cdrecord, you simply type cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc (replace
/dev/hdc with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
by the path to the ISO file :)
With K3B, select Tools > CD > Burn Image. Then
you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
Booting the AMD64 LiveCD(s)
Once you have burned your installation CDs, it is time to boot them.
Remove all CDs from the CD drives, reboot your system and enter the BIOS.
This is usually done by hitting DEL, F1
or ESC, depending on your BIOS. Inside the BIOS, change the boot
order so that the CD-ROM is tried before the hard disk. This is often found
under "CMOS Setup". If you don't do this, your system will just reboot from the
hard disk, ignoring the CD-ROM.
Now place the installation CD in the CD-ROM drive (duh) and reboot. You
should see a fancy boot screen with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this
screen, you can hit Enter to begin the boot process with the default
boot options, or boot the LiveCD with custom boot options by specifying a
kernel followed by boot options and then hitting Enter.
Specifying a kernel? Yes, we provide several kernels on our LiveCDs. The
default one is gentoo. Other kernels are smp, which activates
support for multi-cpu systems and the -nofb variants which disable
framebuffer. We also provide emachines for emachines m6805/7 laptops.
Below you'll find a short overview on the available kernels:
||Default kernel with framebuffer support
||Kernel with support for multiple CPUs
||Same as gentoo but without framebuffer support
||Same as smp but without framebuffer support
||Kernel for booting emachines m6805/7 laptops
Some LiveCDs provide extra kernels, or don't provide kernels listed in
this document. To list the available kernels at boot-time, press F1 when
you are at the bootscreen.
You can also provide kernel options. They represent optional settings
you can (de)activate at will. The following code listing explains all available
Listado de Código 3.3: Available boot options
acpi - Activate ACPI support
doataraid - Activate support for ATA RAID devices
dofirewire - Activate support for FireWire devices
dopcmcia - Activate PCMCIA support
doscsi - Activate support for SCSI devices
noapm - Deactivate APM support
nodetect - Deactivate hardware detection (kudzu/hotplug)
nodhcp - Do not use DHCP to query for an IP address
noevms - Deactivate EVMS support
nohotplug - Deactivate hotplug (kernel loading program)
nousb - Deactivate USB support
ide=nodma - Deactivate DMA support
Now boot your CD, select a kernel (if you are not happy with the default
gentoo kernel) and boot options. As an example, we show you how
to boot the gentoo kernel, with dopcmcia as kernel
Listado de Código 3.4: Booting a LiveCD
boot: gentoo dopcmcia
You will then be greeted with another boot screen and progress bar. Once
the boot process completes, you will be automatically logged in to the
"Live" Gentoo Linux as "root", the super user. You should
have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
If you are installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, use
loadkeys to load the keymap for your keyboard. To list the available
keymaps, execute ls /usr/share/keymaps.
Listado de Código 3.5: Listing available keymaps
# ls /usr/share/keymaps
Now load the keymap of your choice:
Listado de Código 3.6: Loading a keymap
# loadkeys be-latin1
Now continue with Extra Hardware
Extra Hardware Configuration
When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases (the
SPARC LiveCDs don't even do autodetection), it may not auto-load the kernel
modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
In the next example we try to load the 8139too module (support for
certain kinds of network interfaces):
Listado de Código 3.7: Loading kernel modules
# modprobe 8139too
Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance
If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
performance using hdparm. With the -tT options you can
test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
more precise impression):
Listado de Código 3.8: Testing disk performance
# hdparm -tT /dev/hda
To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
yourself) which use /dev/hda as disk (substitute with your
Listado de Código 3.9: Tweaking hard disk performance
# hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda
# hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda
Optional: User Accounts
If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
environment or you want to chat using irssi without root privileges (for
security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
the root password.
To change the root password, use the passwd utility:
Listado de Código 3.10: Changing the root password
To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
its password. We use useradd and passwd for these tasks.
In the next example, we create a user called "john".
Listado de Código 3.11: Creating a user account
# useradd -m -G users john
# passwd john
You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
Listado de Código 3.12: Changing user id
# su - john
Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing
If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
installation, make sure you have created a user account (see Optional: User Accounts). Then press Alt-F2 to
go to a new terminal and log in.
If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
links2 to read it:
Listado de Código 3.13: Viewing the on-CD documentation
# links2 /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html
However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using links2
as well, but only after having completed the Configuring your Network
chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
Listado de Código 3.14: Viewing the Online Documentation
# links2 http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-amd64.xml
You can go back to your original terminal by pressing Alt-F1.
Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon
If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
(only do that if you fully trust that user).
To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
Listado de Código 3.15: Starting the SSH daemon
# /etc/init.d/sshd start
To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
the chapter on Configuring your Network.
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