Gentoo Logo

Renuncia de responsabilidad: Este manual ha sido sustituido por una versión más reciente y no tendrá soporte de aquí en adelante.


[ << ] [ < ] [ Inicio ] [ > ] [ >> ]


7. Configuring the Kernel

Contenido:

7.a. Timezone

You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is located. Look for your timezone in /usr/share/zoneinfo, then make a symlink to /etc/localtime using ln:

Listado de Código 1.1: Setting the timezone information

# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo
(Suppose you want to use GMT)
# ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime

7.b. Installing the Sources

Choosing a Kernel

The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is available at the Gentoo Kernel Guide.

For sparc-based systems we have vanilla-sources (the default kernel source as developed by the linux-kernel developers), development-sources (the default 2.6 kernel source) and sparc-sources (kernel source optimized for SPARC users). If you are installing Gentoo without a working network connection you will need to use vanilla-sources or sparc-sources.

Choose your kernel source and install it using emerge.

In the next example we install the vanilla-sources. Of course substitute with your choice of sources, this is merely an example:

Listado de Código 2.1: Installing a kernel source

# emerge vanilla-sources

When you take a look in /usr/src you should see a symlink called linux pointing to your kernel source:

Listado de Código 2.2: Viewing the kernel source symlink

# ls -l /usr/src/linux
lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root           12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -> linux-2.4.26

If this isn't the case (i.e. the symlink points to a different kernel source) change the symlink before you continue:

Listado de Código 2.3: Changing the kernel source symlink

# rm /usr/src/linux
# cd /usr/src
# ln -s linux-2.4.26 linux

Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source.

7.c. Manual Configuration

Introduction

Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)

However, one thing is true: you must know your system when you start configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by viewing the contents of /proc/pci (or by using lspci if available). You can also run lsmod to see what kernel modules the LiveCD uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).

Now go to your kernel source directory and execute make menuconfig. This will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.

Listado de Código 3.1: Invoking menuconfig

# cd /usr/src/linux
# make menuconfig

You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function properly without additional tweaks).

Activating Required Options

First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers. You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:

Listado de Código 3.2: Selecting experimental code/drivers

Code maturity level options --->
  [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers

Now go to File Systems and select support for the filesystems you use. Don't compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be able to mount your partitions. Also select Virtual memory, /proc file system, /dev file system + Automatically mount at boot:

Listado de Código 3.3: Selecting necessary file systems

(With a 2.4.x kernel)
File systems --->
  [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
  [*] /proc file system support
  [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
  [*]   Automatically mount at boot
  [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs

(With a 2.6.x kernel)
File systems --->
  Pseudo Filesystems --->
    [*] /proc file system support
    [*] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
    [*]   Automatically mount at boot
    [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)

(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)
  <*> Reiserfs support
  <*> Ext3 journalling file system support
  <*> JFS filesystem support
  <*> Second extended fs support
  <*> XFS filesystem support

If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:

Listado de Código 3.4: Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers

(With a 2.4.x kernel)
Network device support --->
  <*> PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
  <*>   PPP support for async serial ports
  <*>   PPP support for sync tty ports

(With a 2.6.x kernel)
Device Drivers --->
  Networking support --->
    <*> PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
    <*>   PPP support for async serial ports
    <*>   PPP support for sync tty ports

The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither does the PPP over Ethernet option, that might only be used by rp-pppoe when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.

If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your ethernet card.

Now activate the correct bus-support:

Listado de Código 3.5: Activating SBUS/UPA

Console drivers --->
  Frame-buffer support --->
    [*] SBUS and UPA framebuffers             
      [*] Creator/Creator3D support     (Only for UPA slot adapter used in many Ultras)
    [*] CGsix (GX,TurboGX) support      (Only for SBUS slot adapter used in many SPARCStations)

Of course you want support for the OBP:

Listado de Código 3.6: Activating OBP Support

Misc Linux/SPARC drivers --->
  [*]  /dev/openprom device support

You will also need SCSI-specific support:

Listado de Código 3.7: Activating SCSI-specific support

SCSI support --->
  SCSI low-level drivers --->
    <*> Sparc ESP Scsi Driver             (Only for SPARC ESP on-board SCSI adapter)
    <*> PTI Qlogic, ISP Driver            (Only for SBUS SCSI controllers from PTI or QLogic)
    <*> SYM53C8XX Version 2 SCSI support  (Only for Ultra 60 on-board SCSI adapter)

To support your network card, select one of the following:

Listado de Código 3.8: Activating networking support

Network device support --->
  Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit) --->
    <*> Sun LANCE support                   (Only for SPARCStation, older Ultra systems, and as Sbus option)
    <*> Sun Happy Meal 10/100baseT support  (Only for Ultra; also supports "qfe" quad-ethernet on PCI and Sbus)

When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with Compiling and Installing. However, after having compiled the kernel, check its size:

Listado de Código 3.9: Check kernel size

# ls -lh vmlinux
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root         2.4M Oct 25 14:38 vmlinux

If the (uncompressed) size is bigger than 2.5Mb (for Sparc32) or 3.5Mb (for Sparc64), reconfigure your kernel until it doesn't exceed these limits. One way of accomplishing this is by having most kernel drivers compiled as modules. Ignoring this can lead to a non-booting kernel.

Nota: If you use a 2.6.3 or higher kernel, sparc64 kernels can be up to 7.5 Mb.

Also, if your kernel is just a tad too big, you can try stripping it using the strip command:

Listado de Código 3.10: Stripping the kernel

# strip -R .comment -R .note vmlinux

Compiling and Installing

Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit the configuration and run make dep && make vmlinux modules modules_install:

Listado de Código 3.11: Compiling the kernel

(For 2.4 kernel, sparc32)
# make dep && make clean vmlinux modules modules_install

(For 2.4 kernel, sparc64)
# make dep && make clean vmlinux image modules modules_install

(For 2.6 kernel, sparc32)
# make && make modules_install

(For 2.6 kernel, sparc64)
# make && make image modules_install

When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to /boot.

Listado de Código 3.12: Installing the kernel

(For 2.4 kernel, sparc32)
# cp vmlinux /boot/kernel-2.4.26

(For 2.4 kernel, sparc64)
# cp arch/sparc64/boot/image /boot/kernel-2.4.26

(For 2.6 kernel, sparc32)
# cp arch/sparc/boot/image /boot/kernel-2.6.5

(For 2.6 kernel, sparc64)
# cp arch/sparc64/boot/image /boot/kernel-2.6.5

(Don't forget to copy over the System.map file)
# cp System.map /boot

It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to /boot, just in case :)

Listado de Código 3.13: Backing up your kernel configuration

# cp .config /boot/config-2.4.26

Now continue with Installing Separate Kernel Modules.

7.d. Installing Separate Kernel Modules

Configuring the Modules

You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 (or kernel-2.6). You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.

To view all available modules, run the following find command. Don't forget to substitute "<kernel version>" with the version of the kernel you just compiled:

Listado de Código 4.1: Viewing all available modules

# find /lib/modules/<kernel version>/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'

For instance, to automatically load the 3c59x.o module, edit the kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6 file and enter the module name in it.

Listado de Código 4.2: Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4

(Example for 2.4 kernels)
# nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4

Listado de Código 4.3: /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.4 or kernel-2.6

3c59x

Now run modules-update to commit your changes to the /etc/modules.conf file:

Listado de Código 4.4: Running modules-update

# modules-update

Continue the installation with Configuring your System.


[ << ] [ < ] [ Inicio ] [ > ] [ >> ]


Imprimir

Ver completo

Página actualizada 2 de noviembre, 2004

Esta traducción ha dejado de tener soporte

Sumario: The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter explains how to configure your kernel.

Sven Vermeulen
Author

Daniel Robbins
Author

Chris Houser
Author

Jerry Alexandratos
Author

Seemant Kulleen
Gentoo x86 Developer

Tavis Ormandy
Gentoo Alpha Developer

Jason Huebel
Gentoo AMD64 Developer

Guy Martin
Gentoo HPPA developer

Pieter Van den Abeele
Gentoo PPC developer

Joe Kallar
Gentoo SPARC developer

John P. Davis
Editor

Pierre-Henri Jondot
Editor

Eric Stockbridge
Editor

Rajiv Manglani
Editor

Jungmin Seo
Editor

Stoyan Zhekov
Editor

Jared Hudson
Editor

Colin Morey
Editor

Jorge Paulo
Editor

Carl Anderson
Editor

Jon Portnoy
Editor

Zack Gilburd
Editor

Jack Morgan
Editor

Benny Chuang
Editor

Erwin
Editor

Joshua Kinard
Editor

Tobias Scherbaum
Editor

Grant Goodyear
Reviewer

Gerald J. Normandin Jr.
Reviewer

Donnie Berkholz
Reviewer

Ken Nowack
Reviewer

Lars Weiler
Contributor

Donate to support our development efforts.

Copyright 2001-2014 Gentoo Foundation, Inc. Questions, Comments? Contact us.