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7. Configuring the Kernel

Sisällysluettelo:

7.a. Timezone

You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is located. Look for your timezone in /usr/share/zoneinfo, then make a symlink to /etc/localtime using ln:

Koodilistaus 1.1: Setting the timezone information

# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo
(Suppose you want to use GMT)
# ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime

7.b. Installing the Sources

Choosing a Kernel

The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is available at the Gentoo Kernel Guide.

For PPC you can choose between vanilla-sources and gentoo-sources (both 2.6 kernels). The latter is available when you perform a networkless installation. Beside those there is a special kernel-2.6-patchset for the Pegasos: pegasos-sources. So let's continue with emerge'ing the kernel sources:

Koodilistaus 2.1: Installing a kernel source

# emerge gentoo-sources

Huomaa: The PowerPC sources are based on a 2.6.10-kernel with security patches from 2.6.11 backported. As the time of the release the 2.6.11 kernel produced several problems on different PowerPC machines.

When you take a look in /usr/src you should see a symlink called linux pointing to your kernel source. We will assume the kernel source installed is gentoo-sources-2.6.10-r8:

Koodilistaus 2.2: Viewing the kernel source symlink

# ls -l /usr/src/linux
lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root           22  Mar 18 16:23 /usr/src/linux -> linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8

If the symlink doesn't point to the kernel source of your choice (note that linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8 is merely an example) you should change it to the right kernel:

Koodilistaus 2.3: Changing the kernel source symlink

# rm /usr/src/linux
# cd /usr/src
# ln -s linux-2.6.10-gentoo-r8 linux

Now it is time to configure and compile your kernel source. You can use genkernel for this, which will build a generic kernel as used by the Installation CD. We explain the "manual" configuration first though, as it is the best way to optimize your environment.

If you want to manually configure your kernel, continue now with Default: Manual Configuration. If you want to use genkernel you should read Alternative: Using genkernel instead.

7.c. Default: Manual Configuration

Introduction

Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)

However, one thing is true: you must know your system when you start configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging pciutils (emerge pciutils) which contains lspci. You will now be able to use lspci within the chrooted environment. You may safely ignore any pcilib warnings (like pcilib: cannot open /sys/bus/pci/devices) that lspci throws out. Alternatively, you can run lspci from a non-chrooted environment. The results are the same. You can also run lsmod to see what kernel modules the Installation CD uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).

Now go to your kernel source directory and execute make menuconfig. This will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.

Koodilistaus 3.1: Invoking menuconfig

# cd /usr/src/linux
# make menuconfig

You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function properly without additional tweaks).

Activating Required Options

First of all, activate the use of development and experimental code/drivers. You need this, otherwise some very important code/drivers won't show up:

Koodilistaus 3.2: Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup

Code maturity level options --->
  [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
General setup --->
  [*] Support for hot-pluggable devices

Now go to File Systems and select support for the filesystems you use. Don't compile them as modules, otherwise your Gentoo system will not be able to mount your partitions. Also select /proc file system and Virtual memory. Do not select the /dev file system.

Koodilistaus 3.3: Selecting necessary file systems

File systems --->
  Pseudo Filesystems --->
    [*] /proc file system support
    [ ] /dev file system support (OBSOLETE)
    [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)

(Select one or more of the following options as needed by your system)
  <*> Reiserfs support
  <*> Ext3 journalling file system support
  <*> Second extended fs support
  <*> XFS filesystem support

If you are using PPPoE to connect to the Internet or you are using a dial-up modem, you will need the following options in the kernel:

Koodilistaus 3.4: Selecting PPPoE necessary drivers

Device Drivers --->
  Networking support --->
    <*> PPP (point-to-point protocol) support
    <*>   PPP support for async serial ports
    <*>   PPP support for sync tty ports

The two compression options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither does the PPP over Ethernet option, that might only be used by rp-pppoe when configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.

If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your ethernet card.

Disable ADB raw keycodes:

Koodilistaus 3.5: Disabling ADB raw keycodes

Macintosh Device Drivers --->
  [ ] Support for ADB raw keycodes

Also choose the correct RTC support (disable the Enhanced RTC option):

Koodilistaus 3.6: Activating the correct RTC option

Character devices --->
  [ ] Enhanced RTC

General setup --->
  [*] Support for /dev/rtc

Users of OldWorld machines will want HFS support so they can copy compiled kernels to the MacOS partition. This applies also to NewWorld machines as it is needed for the special Apple_Bootstrap partition:

Koodilistaus 3.7: Activating HFS support

File Systems --->
  [*] HFS Support

When you're done configuring your kernel, continue with Compiling and Installing.

Compiling and Installing

Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit the configuration and run the commands which will compile the kernel:

Koodilistaus 3.8: Compiling the kernel

# make all && make modules_install

When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to /boot (be sure that it is mounted properly on the Pegasos).

Koodilistaus 3.9: Installing the kernel

replace 2.6.10 with your kernel-version
(Apple/IBM)  # cp vmlinux /boot/kernel-2.6.10
(Pegasos)    # cp arch/ppc/boot/images/zImage.chrp /boot/kernel-2.6.10

It is also wise to copy over your kernel configuration file to /boot, just in case :)

Koodilistaus 3.10: Backing up your kernel configuration

# cp .config /boot/config-2.6.10-gentoo-r8

Now continue with Installing Separate Kernel Modules.

7.d. Installing Separate Kernel Modules

Configuring the Modules

You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6. You can add extra options to the modules too if you want.

To view all available modules, run the following find command. Don't forget to substitute "<kernel version>" with the version of the kernel you just compiled:

Koodilistaus 4.1: Viewing all available modules

# find /lib/modules/<kernel version>/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'

For instance, to automatically load the 3c59x.o module, edit the kernel-2.6 file and enter the module name in it.

Koodilistaus 4.2: Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6

# nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6

Koodilistaus 4.3: /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6

3c59x

Continue the installation with Configuring your System.

7.e. Alternative: Using genkernel

If you are reading this section, you have chosen to use our genkernel script to configure your kernel for you.

Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your kernel by using our genkernel script to automatically build a kernel for you. genkernel works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the way our Installation CD kernel is configured. This means that when you use genkernel to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all your hardware at boot-time, just like our Installation CD does. Because genkernel doesn't require any manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for those users who may not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.

Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:

Koodilistaus 5.1: Emerging genkernel

# emerge genkernel

Next, copy over the kernel configuration used by the Installation CD to the location where genkernel looks for the default kernel configuration:

Koodilistaus 5.2: Copying over the Installation CD kernel config

# zcat /proc/config.gz > /usr/share/genkernel/ppc/kernel-config-2.6

Now, compile your kernel sources by running genkernel --udev all. Be aware though, as genkernel compiles a kernel that supports almost all hardware, this compilation will take quite a while to finish!

Note that, if your partition where the kernel should be located doesn't use ext2 or ext3 as filesystem you might need to manually configure your kernel using genkernel --menuconfig all and add support for your filesystem in the kernel (i.e. not as a module). Users of EVMS2 or LVM2 will probably want to add --evms2 or --lvm2 as argument as well.

Koodilistaus 5.3: Running genkernel

# genkernel --udev all

Once genkernel completes, a kernel, full set of modules and initial root disk (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. Write down the names of the kernel and initrd as you will need it when writing the bootloader configuration file. The initrd will be started immediately after booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the Installation CD) before your "real" system starts up.

Koodilistaus 5.4: Checking the created kernel image name and initrd

# ls /boot/kernel* /boot/initrd*

If you want your system to be more like the Installation CD you should, when your Gentoo installation is over, emerge coldplug. While the initrd autodetects hardware that is needed to boot your system, coldplug autodetects everything else. coldplug is available as one of the packages on the Package CD.

Koodilistaus 5.5: Emerging and enabling coldplug

(Do this after the installation, during the GRP installation instructions)
# emerge -k coldplug
# rc-update add coldplug boot

Now continue with Configuring your System.


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Tämä sivu on viimeksi päivitetty 4. heinäkuuta 2005

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Tiivistelmä: The Linux kernel is the core of every distribution. This chapter explains how to configure your kernel.

Sven Vermeulen
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Daniel Robbins
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Chris Houser
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Jerry Alexandratos
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Seemant Kulleen
Gentoon x86-kehittäjä

Tavis Ormandy
Gentoon alpha-kehittäjä

Brad House
Gentoon AMD64-kehittäjä

Guy Martin
Gentoon HPPA-kehittäjä

Pieter Van den Abeele
Gentoon PPC-kehittäjä

Joe Kallar
Gentoon SPARC-kehittäjä

John P. Davis
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Pierre-Henri Jondot
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Eric Stockbridge
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Rajiv Manglani
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Jungmin Seo
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Stoyan Zhekov
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Jared Hudson
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Colin Morey
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Jorge Paulo
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Carl Anderson
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Jon Portnoy
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Zack Gilburd
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Jack Morgan
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Benny Chuang
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Erwin
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Grant Goodyear
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Donnie Berkholz
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Ken Nowack
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Lars Weiler
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Flammie Pirinen
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Jouni Hätinen
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