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2. Choosing the Right Installation Medium


2.a. Hardware Requirements


Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to successfully install Gentoo on your box.

Hardware Requirements

CPU Any PowerPC64 CPU
Systems IBM RS/6000s, Power Macintosh G5, IBM pSeries and IBM iSeries
Memory 64 MB
Diskspace 1.5 GB (excluding swap space)
Swap space At least 256 MB

For a full list of supported systems, please go to

2.b. The Gentoo Installation CD

Gentoo Minimal Installation CD

The Minimal Installation CD is a bootable CD which contains a self-sustained Gentoo environment. It allows you to boot Linux from the CD. During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers are loaded. The CD is maintained by Gentoo developers and allows you to install Gentoo with an active Internet connection.

The Minimal Installation CD is called ${min-cd-name} and takes up around ${min-cd-size} MB of diskspace.

The Stage3 Tarball

A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment, suitable to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this manual. Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of three stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read the Gentoo FAQ on How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?

Stage3 tarballs can be downloaded from ${release-dir}current-stage3/ on any of the Official Gentoo Mirrors and are not provided on the LiveCD.

Choosing a userland

On PPC64, the kernel is 64-bit and the userland can be 32-bit or 64-bit. The userland is basically the applications you are running, such as bash or firefox. They can be compiled and run in either 64-bit or 32-bit modes. The Gentoo/PPC64 team provides both 32-bit and 64-bit userlands, so which one should you use?

You may have heard that 64-bit applications are better, but in fact, 32-bit applications take up slightly less memory and often run a little bit faster than 64-bit applications.

You really only need 64-bit applications when you need more memory than a 32-bit userland allows, or if you do a lot of 64-bit number crunching. If you have 4GB or more of memory or you run scientific applications, you should choose the 64-bit userland. Otherwise, choose the 32-bit userland, as it is recommended by the Gentoo/PPC64 developers.

Additionally, the 32-bit userland has been available in Portage longer than the 64-bit userland has. This means that there are more applications tested in the 32-bit userland that just work "out of the box." Many applications compiled for the 64-bit userland may be just as stable as the 32-bit version, but they haven't been tested yet. Though testing isn't difficult to do, it can be annoying and time consuming if you want to use many untested 64-bit applications. Also, some programs just won't run in the 64-bit userland until their code is fixed, such as LibreOffice.

2.c. Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD

Downloading and Burning the Installation CD

You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed the Installation CD, but where can you find it?

You can download the Installation CD from one of our mirrors. The Installation CD is located in the ${release-dir}current-iso/ directory.

Inside that directory you'll find the ISO file. This is a full CD image which you can write on a CD-R.

In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can check its SHA-2 checksum and compare it with the SHA-2 checksum we provide (such as ${min-cd-name}.DIGESTS). You can check the SHA-2 checksum with the sha512sum tool under Linux/Unix or Checksums calculator for Windows.

Huomaa: The tool will attempt to verify the checksums in the list, even if the checksum is made with a different algorithm. Therefore, the output of the command might give both success (for SHA checksums) and failures (for other checksums). At least one OK needs to be provided for each file.

Koodilistaus 3.1: Verifying the SHA-2 checksum

$ sha512sum -c <downloaded iso.DIGESTS>

Huomaa: If you get the message that no properly formatted SHA checksum was found, take a look at the DIGESTS file yourself to see what the supported checksums are.

Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with .asc). Download the signature file and obtain the public keys whose key ids can be found on the release engineering project site.

Koodilistaus 3.2: Obtaining the public key

(... Substitute the key ids with those mentioned on the release engineering site ...)
$ gpg --keyserver --recv-keys 96D8BF6D 2D182910 17072058

Now verify the signature:

Koodilistaus 3.3: Verify the files

$ gpg --verify <downloaded iso.DIGESTS.asc>
$ sha512sum -c <downloaded iso.DIGESTS.asc>

To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss cdrecord, K3B, Disk Utility and Disk Copy here; more information can be found in our Gentoo FAQ.

  • With cdrecord, you simply type cdrecord dev=/dev/sr0 <downloaded iso file> (replace /dev/sr0 with your CD-RW drive's device path).
  • With K3B, select Tools > Burn CD Image. Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click Start.
  • With Mac OS X Panther, launch Disk Utility from Applications/Utilities, select Open from the Images menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and select Burn in the Images menu.
  • With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch Disk Copy from Applications/Utilities, select Burn Image from the File menu, select the ISO and click the Burn button.

Default: Booting the Installation CD on an Apple/IBM

Place the Installation CD in the CD-ROM and reboot the system. Hold down the 'C' key at bootup. You will be greeted by a friendly welcome message and a boot: prompt at the bottom of the screen.

You are also able to tweak some kernel options at this prompt. The following table lists the available boot options you can add:

Boot Option Description
video This option takes one of the following vendor-specific tags: radeonfb, rivafb, atyfb, aty128, nvidiafb or ofonly. You can follow this tag with the resolution and refreshrate you want to use. For instance video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75. If you are uncertain what to choose, ofonly will most certainly work.
nol3 Disables level 3 cache on some powerbooks (needed for at least the 17")
debug Enables verbose booting, spawns an initrd shell that can be used to debug the Installation CD
sleep=X Wait X seconds before continuing; this can be needed by some very old SCSI CD-ROMs which don't speed up the CD quick enough
bootfrom=X Boot from a different device
dosshd Starts sshd. Useful for unattended installs.
passwd=foo Sets whatever is after the = as the root password. Use with dosshd for remote installs.

At this prompt, hit enter, and a complete Gentoo Linux environment will be loaded from the CD. Continue with And When You're Booted....

IBM pSeries

The CD should autoboot on your pSeries box, but sometimes it does not. In that case, you have to set up your cdrom as a bootable device in the multi-boot menu. If you start your machine with a monitor and a keyboard attached, you can reach the multi-boot menu pressing the F1 key on startup. But if you start your machine using the serial console, then you have to press 1. Press the key when you see the beginning of the following line on the serial console:

Koodilistaus 3.4: Hit the '1' key when this line appears

memory      keyboard     network      scsi      speaker

The other option is to jump into Open Firmware and do it from there:

  1. Boot into Open Firmware: same procedure as getting into multi-boot (described a few lines above), but use F8 and 8 instead of F1 and 1.
  2. Run the command 0> boot cdrom:1,yaboot
  3. Stand back and enjoy!

Huomaa: If you get something like the following output, then Open Firmware isn't set up correctly. Please use the multi-boot option described above.

Koodilistaus 3.5: Output if Open Firmware is not set up correctly

0 > boot cdrom:1,yaboot
0 >

And When You're Booted...

You will be greeted by a root ("#") prompt on the current console. You can also switch to other consoles by pressing Alt-fn-F2, Alt-fn-F3 and Alt-fn-F4. Get back to the one you started on by pressing Alt-fn-F1.

If you are installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, use loadkeys to load the keymap for your keyboard. To list the available keymaps, execute ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386.

Koodilistaus 3.6: Listing available keymaps

(PPC64 uses x86 keymaps on most systems)
# ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386

Now load the keymap of your choice:

Koodilistaus 3.7: Loading a keymap

# loadkeys be-latin1

Now continue with Extra Hardware Configuration.

Extra Hardware Configuration

When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may not auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.

In the next example we try to load the 8139too module (support for certain kinds of network interfaces):

Koodilistaus 3.8: Loading kernel modules

# modprobe 8139too

Optional: User Accounts

If you plan on giving other people access to your installation environment or you want to chat using irssi without root privileges (for security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change the root password.

To change the root password, use the passwd utility:

Koodilistaus 3.9: Changing the root password

# passwd
New password: (Enter your new password)
Re-enter password: (Re-enter your password)

To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by its password. We use useradd and passwd for these tasks. In the next example, we create a user called "john".

Koodilistaus 3.10: Creating a user account

# useradd -m -G users john
# passwd john
New password: (Enter john's password)
Re-enter password: (Re-enter john's password)

You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using su:

Koodilistaus 3.11: Changing user id

# su - john

Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing

If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook during the installation, make sure you have created a user account (see Optional: User Accounts). Then press Alt-F2 to go to a new terminal.

You can view the handbook using links, once you have completed the Configuring your Network chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the document):

Koodilistaus 3.12: Viewing the Online Documentation

# links${online-book}

You can go back to your original terminal by pressing Alt-F1.

Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon

If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password (only do that if you fully trust that user).

To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:

Koodilistaus 3.13: Starting the SSH daemon

# /etc/init.d/sshd start

Huomaa: If you (or other users) log on to the system, they will get a message that the host key for this system needs to be confirmed (through what is called a fingerprint). This is to be expected as it is the first time people log on to the system. However, later when your system is set up and you log on to the newly created system, your SSH client will warn you that the host key has been changed. This is because you now log on to - for SSH - a different server (namely your freshly installed Gentoo system rather than the live environment you are on right now). When you hit that warning, follow the instructions given on the screen then to replace the host key on the client system.

To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with the chapter on Configuring your Network.

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Tämä sivu on viimeksi päivitetty 12. huhtikuuta 2014

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Tiivistelmä: You can install Gentoo in many ways. This chapter explains how to install Gentoo using the minimal LiveCD although installation through the Universal LiveCD is possible as well.

Sven Vermeulen

Daniel Robbins

Chris Houser

Jerry Alexandratos

Seemant Kulleen
Gentoon x86-kehittäjä

Tavis Ormandy
Gentoon alpha-kehittäjä

Aron Griffis
Gentoon alpha-kehittäjä

Brad House
Gentoon AMD64-kehittäjä

Guy Martin
Gentoon HPPA-kehittäjä

Pieter Van den Abeele
Gentoon PPC-kehittäjä

Joe Kallar
Gentoon SPARC-kehittäjä

John P. Davis

Pierre-Henri Jondot

Eric Stockbridge

Rajiv Manglani

Jungmin Seo

Stoyan Zhekov

Jared Hudson

Colin Morey

Jorge Paulo

Carl Anderson

Jon Portnoy

Zack Gilburd

Jack Morgan

Benny Chuang


Joshua Kinard

Xavier Neys

Grant Goodyear

Gerald J. Normandin Jr.

Donnie Berkholz

Ken Nowack

Lars Weiler

Flammie Pirinen
Vastuullinen kääntäjä

Jouni Hätinen
Käännöksen laatutarkistaja

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