GLEP 68: Package and category metadata
|Author||Michał Górny <firstname.lastname@example.org>|
|Posting history||2016-03-16, 2018-02-20, 2022-05-22, 2022-10-07, 2023-02-22|
|Replaces||34 46 56|
- Backwards Compatibility
- Reference implementation
This GLEP specifies the format of files used to describe category and package metadata (metadata.xml).
At the moment of writing this GLEP, category and package metadata.xml lacked proper specification. PMS Appendix A  specified that the format of this file is beyond its scope, deferring the specification to the DTD file.
The original metadata.dtd file  (the version before cleanups related to this spec) did not serve well as the specification. Due to the technical limitations on DTD format, it was both unable to enforce the specification fully and explain it in a readable form. Furthermore, it lacked some important details such as the format of <pkg/> entries.
Besides that, there were numerous alterations to the format. GLEP 34 added metadata files for category descriptions, GLEP 46 added upstream information, GLEP 56 added USE flag descriptions, GLEP 67 altered the maintainer descriptions. Furthermore, there were additions and removals done without a formal specification, e.g. addition of slot descriptions.
Sadly, some of those GLEPs are partially in conflict with other specifications — for example, the <pkg/> element as described in GLEP 56 is different than the one originally proposed and used in metadata.xml.
Therefore, the motivation for this GLEP is to provide unified, clear and complete specification for both category-wide and package-wide metadata.xml files. It is meant to combine previous GLEPs, relevant discussions and implementation in order to provide the specification that is closest to the originally intended meaning while preserving best compatibility with existing tools and data.
This specification provides two kinds of metadata files: category metadata files and package metadata files. Both kinds of files use the XML 1.0 file format . They must not use external markup declarations, as defined in the XML specification. While they may reference or include a DTD, the parser must not fetch or process it.
The data structure of metadata files is defined in this GLEP. The elements and attributes do not use namespaces. Conforming files must not contain any elements or attributes that are not defined in this specification. However, parsers should ignore any unknown elements or attributes in order to permit future extension.
Category metadata files are named metadata.xml and located inside category directories in an ebuild repository. Their structure is described in Category metadata section.
Package metadata files are named metadata.xml and located inside package directories in an ebuild repository. Their structure is described in Package metadata section.
The following text data types are used:
- text data,
- multi-line text data.
In case of text data, all whitespace inside the element is normalized (consecutive whitespace sequences are replaced by a single SP). Trailing and leading whitespace is stripped.
In case of multi-line text data, all whitespace except for newline characters is normalized. Newlines are used to delimit lines of text. Leading and trailing lines of text that are either empty or consist purely of whitespace are stripped. Afterwards, the whitespace belonging to the indentation common to all non-empty lines of text is stripped.
Optionally, interspersing text with <cat/> and <pkg/> elements can be allowed. In this case, <cat/> element is used to reference a category inside the repository, and must contain a valid category name. <pkg/> is used to reference a package, and must contain a valid qualified package name.
The following common attributes are allowed on multiple elements:
- language specifiers,
- restriction specifiers.
Language specifiers are used whenever an element supports variants in different languages. In this case, each occurrence of the element may contain an optional lang="" attribute that contains an IETF language tag . In case no lang="" attribute is provided, an implicit default of en is assumed.
Restriction specifiers are used whenever an element supports restricting to specific package versions. In this case, each occurence of the element may contain an optional restrict="" attribute that contains an EAPI 5 dependency specification that has to match one or more versions of the package. In this case, the metadata provided by the element applies only to the package versions matching the restriction.
The category metadata file uses <catmetadata/> top-level element. This element can contain, in any order:
- zero or more <longdescription/> elements containing category descriptions in different languages (at most one for each language). The category description is formed of multi-line text, optionally interspersed with <cat/> and <pkg/> elements.
The package metadata file uses <pkgmetadata/> top-level element. This element can contain, in any order:
- zero or more <longdescription/> elements containing package descriptions in different languages, possibly restricted to specific package versions (at most one for each combination of language and package version). The package description is formed of multi-line text, optionally interspersed with <cat/> and <pkg/> elements.
- zero or more <maintainer/> elements listing package maintainers, optionally restricted to specific package versions. The maintainer format is detailed in Maintainer descriptions.
- zero or more <slots/> elements containing slot descriptions in different languages (at most one for each language), as detailed in Slot descriptions.
- zero or more <stabilize-allarches/> elements, possibly restricted to specific package versions (at most one for each version) whose presence indicates that the appropriate ebuilds are suitable for simultaneously marking stable on all architectures where a previous version is stable after arch testing on one of them (i.e. if the package is known to be fully arch-independent).
- zero or more <use/> elements containing USE flag descriptions in different languages (at most one for each language), as detailed in USE flag descriptions.
- at most one <upstream/> element providing information on upstream of the package, as detailed in Upstream descriptions.
Each <maintainer/> element describes a single maintainer.
The <maintainer/> element has an obligatory type="" attribute whose value can be either person or project.
The <maintainer/> element contains the following elements, in any order:
- exactly one <email/> element that contains the maintainer's e-mail address (used as unique identifier),
- at most one <name/> element that contains the maintainer's human-readable name (real name or nickname),
- zero or more <description/> elements that explain the role of the maintainer in different languages (at most one <description/> for each language).
Each <slots/> element describes slots of a package (in specific language).
The <slots/> element can contain the following elements:
- zero or more <slot/> elements describing specific ebuild slots (at most one for each slot name). The <slot/> element contains an obligatory name="" attribute stating the slot to which the description applies, and contains slot description as text. Alternatively, a slot name of * can be used to indicate a single description applying to all slots (no other <slot/> elements may be used in this case).
- at most one <subslots/> element describing the role of subslots (all of them) as text.
USE flag descriptions
Each <use/> element describes USE flags of a package (in specific language).
The <use/> element can contain the following elements:
- zero or more <flag/> elements describing specific USE flags, optionally restricted to specific package versions (at most one entry for a combination of USE flag name and package version). The <flag/> element contains an obligatory name="" attribute stating the name of the USE flag to which the description applies, and contains text, optionally interspersed with <cat/> and <pkg/> elements.
The <upstream/> element provides information on the upstream of a package. It contains the following elements:
- zero or more <maintainer/> elements listing package's upstream maintainers, as described in Upstream maintainer descriptions,
- at most one <changelog/> element containing URL to an on-line copy of upstream changelog,
- zero or more <doc/> elements containing URLs to on-line copies of upstream documentation in different languages (at most one for each language),
- at most one <bugs-to/> element containing upstream bug reporting URL, that can optionally be a mailto: URL,
- zero or more <remote-id/> elements listing package identities on package identification trackers. Each of those elements has an obligatory type="" attribute that matches a pre-defined name of package identification tracker, and a value that is an identifier specific to the tracker. The list of available trackers and their specific identifiers are outside scope of this specification.
Upstream maintainer descriptions
Each <maintainer/> element inside <upstream/> describes a single upstream maintainer.
The <maintainer/> element has an optional status="" attribute whose value can be either active or inactive. If not specified, an implicit unknown value is assumed.
The <maintainer/> element has the following attributes, in any order:
- at most one <email/> element that contains the maintainer's e-mail address,
- exactly one <name/> element that contains the maintainer's human-readable name (real name or nickname).
The basic source of information on current metadata.xml format was metadata.dtd as of 2016-03-02 . Whenever the DTD was unclear, appropriate GLEPs were referenced in order to deduce the original intent. Whenever the GLEPs were unclear or the elements missed GLEPs, original mailing list discussions were referenced.
Compared to the original DTD, the following elements were removed (both in the spec and in the updated DTD file):
- package-scope <changelog/> element was removed. It dates back to the original metadata.xml proposal  but it was never implemented — instead, plain text ChangeLogs were used. Furthermore, GLEP 46 introduced <changelog/> inside <upstream/> with different type which collided with the global declaration due to DTD limitations.
- package-scope <natural-name/> element was removed. It was available for 1.5yr and after that time, it reached four packages providing it and no known tool supporting/using it. It was used only to provide a copy of package name with correct case (e.g. libressl -> LibreSSL), therefore the information provided by it was considered redundant.
- top-level <packages/> variant was removed. It was never used and it was really unclear what its use would be. In any case, this made the DTD simpler.
<pkg/> value format
A debate on valid format of <pkg/> element values preceded the writing of this GLEP. The DTD did not specify a value format restriction on this, only suggested that it is used for cross-linking. Further on, GLEP 56 redefined its value to a valid CP or CPV. The practical uses did not include the latter case; however, it was common to include EAPI 1 slot specifiers or even EAPI 5 slot operators following the qualified package names.
After finding the Doug Goldstein's blog post on introduction of <pkg/> elements , it turned out that the original intent was to allow cross-linking/referencing from packages.gentoo.org. Since the latter uses qualified package names as identifiers, it was decided to restrict <pkg/> elements to reference those. For entries that include slot specifiers, it is recommended to move the slot specifiers out of <pkg/> element.
Originally, the DTD used implicit default value of C. However, this value was not in line with real language specifiers found in metadata.xml. The latter usually took form of ISO 639-1 language codes which do not form a valid (complete) locale identifiers, while the former is not a valid language identifier in any of the considered standards. Furthermore, since en was commonly used to identify English in metadata.xml files, and no tools relied on the implicit default defined in the DTD, it was decided to change the implicit default to en.
Language identifiers were later updated to allow full IETF language tags, so that codes like pt-BR or zh-Hant can be represented.
Originally, the DTD described the restrict="" attribute as: the format of this attribute is equal to the format of DEPEND lines in ebuilds. This specification is based upon this definition. However, for practical reasons it added three clarifications to it:
- only package dependency specifications are allowed (i.e. no USE-conditionals or multiple dependency specifications),
- EAPI 5 dependency specifications are allowed. Although metadata.xml provides no EAPI identification mechanism, the top-level profile directory specifies EAPI 5, and Portage supports EAPI 5 since 2012.
- only dependencies referencing the same package are allowed.
Furthermore, DTD added a special case for * value that applies if there are no other tags that apply. This behavior was not used at all, and being at least a bit confusing (compared to the common use of * to imply matching everything), it was removed.
The upstream block was defined by GLEP 46. However, this GLEP is ambiguous at the best. Tiziano Müller (one of the original authors) has explained the intent behind most of the elements of the GLEP.
In particular, he confirmed that the GLEP lists all elements that are allowed explicitly, and no implicit inclusions were meant to be allowed. This means that the <maintainer/> element does not allow a <description/>.
He also confirmed that unless noted otherwise, elements were not allowed to be used more than once. This affects <bugs-to/> and <changelog/> elements. Repetitions of <doc/> were only allowed because DTD technically didn't permit restricting them while allowing uses of different languages.
At the time of writing this GLEP, only a single Gentoo package was using multiple <bugs-to/> elements, and no packages were using multiple <changelog/> or <doc/> elements (or non-English docs). For this reason, this GLEP enforces the original intent of at most one element.
Rationale for upstream maintainer descriptions
The proper contents of the <maintainer/> elements in <upstream/> blocks were unclear in the DTD since the technical file format limitation implied that all elements and attributes added for the Gentoo maintainers also applied to upstream maintainers, and vice versa.
The comments in the DTD clearly separated attributes between the two — i.e. stated that the type attribute is used only for Gentoo maintainers, while the status attribute is used only for upstream maintainers. However, package version restrictions and maintainer descriptions were also implicitly allowed on them. Since neither of the two was allowed by GLEP 46, this specification disallows them.
This specification does not introduce any new elements or attributes compared to the current DTD. Therefore, all metadata.xml files created in its compliance will be read correctly by the existing tools and will conform to the current DTD.
However, this specification is more strict than the rules enforced by the DTD. Therefore, not all existing metadata.xml will be conforming to the spec, even though they would be correct according to the DTD. New tools will consider the files incorrect and request developers to fix them.
Since the metadata.xml format provided by this specification is compatible with existing tool, no new implementation is required for reading those files.
Checking metadata.xml validity
To provide more strict checking of metadata.xml files, XML schema file is provided in the Gentoo xml-schema repository . This schema provides:
- element structure checks,
- data duplication checks (e.g. multiple descriptions for the same flag but see below),
- partial value correctness checks.
The limitations of the schema are:
- values are verified using simple regular expressions, so not all format violations will be caught (e.g. the rule will consider app-foo/bar-1 a valid qualified package name when the version suffix is disallowed),
- cross-references can not be checked (package references, category references, URLs, project identifiers),
- <maintainer type=""/> correctness can not be checked,
- data duplication checks are done per restrict="" value rather than per every package version matched by the restriction. Therefore, multiple definitions that are applied to a single package by two different restrict="" rules will not be caught.
Example metadata.xml file
<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> <pkgmetadata> <maintainer type='person'> <email>email@example.com</email> <name>Example Developer</name> </maintainer> <maintainer type='person' restrict='dev-libs/foo:11'> <email>firstname.lastname@example.org</email> <name>Another Developer</name> <description>CC only on bugs for libfoo.so.11</description> </maintainer> <maintainer type='project'> <email>email@example.com</email> <name>Example Project</name> </maintainer> <maintainer type='person'> <email>firstname.lastname@example.org</email> <name>Upstream Developer</name> <description>Upstream developer, wishing to be CC-ed on bugs</description> </maintainer> <longdescription> First paragraph of extensive description. Second paragraph. </longdescription> <longdescription lang='de'> Erster Absatz mit detaillierter Beschreibung. Zweiter Absatz. </longdescription> <slots> <slot name='11'>Compatibility slot providing libfoo.so.11 only.</slot> <subslots> Match SONAME of libfoo.so. </subslots> </slots> <slots lang='de'> <slot name='11'>Kompatibilitäts-Slot, installiert ausschließlich libfoo.so.11.</slot> <subslots> Subslot ist stets identisch mit dem SONAME von libfoo.so. </subslots> </slots> <use> <flag name='foo'>Enables foo feature</flag> <flag name='bar' restrict='<dev-libs/foo-12'>Enables bar feature (requires <pkg>dev-libs/bar</pkg>)</flag> <flag name='bar' restrict='>=dev-libs/foo-12'>Enables bar feature</flag> </use> <use lang='de'> <flag name='foo'>Konfiguriert das Paket mit Unterstützung für foo</flag> <flag name='bar' restrict='<dev-libs/foo-12'>Konfiguriert das Paket mit Unterstützung für bar (benötigt <pkg>dev-libs/bar</pkg>)</flag> <flag name='bar' restrict='>=dev-libs/foo-12'>Konfiguriert das Paket mit Unterstützung für bar</flag> </use> <upstream> <maintainer status='active'> <email>email@example.com</email> <name>Upstream Developer</name> </maintainer> <maintainer status='inactive'> <!-- e-mail unknown --> <name>John Smith</name> </maintainer> <changelog>http://www.example.com/releases.html</changelog> <doc>http://www.example.com/doc.html</doc> <doc lang='de'>http://www.example.com/doc.de.html</doc> <bugs-to>http://www.example.com/issues.html</bugs-to> <remote-id type='foohub'>example/foo</remote-id> </upstream> </pkgmetadata>
German translations provided by tamiko.
|||PMS Appendix A https://projects.gentoo.org/pms/5/pms.html#x1-163000A|
|||The original metadata.dtd file https://gitweb.gentoo.org/data/dtd.git/tree/metadata.dtd?id=a908a93b5afe295359e0a01814c9bef8b5268bcd|
|||Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition) https://www.w3.org/TR/xml/|
|||BCP 47: "Tags for identifying languages", https://tools.ietf.org/rfc/bcp/bcp47.txt|
|||(1, 2) The original metadata.xml proposal: Paul de Vrieze. "IMPORTANT: The proposal for the metadata.xml file". gentoo-dev mailing list, 2003-06-27, Message-ID firstname.lastname@example.org, https://archives.gentoo.org/gentoo-dev/message/cbcc15e9906c0165976ad66d4343ba7a|
|||Doug Goldstein: USE flag metadata https://cardoe.wordpress.com/2007/11/19/use-flag-metadata/|
|||Gentoo XML schema https://gitweb.gentoo.org/data/xml-schema.git/|
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/.