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2. Choosing the Right Installation Medium
2.a. Hardware Requirements
Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
successfully install Gentoo on your box.
A list of supported hardware can be found on the PA Team website. You may find
additional information about your box in the Parisc-Linux Hardware Database and
list on www.openpa.net.
If you don't know which version of PA-RISC your box is using, please check the
links above to find out whether you're using version 1.1 or 2.0. You will need
this information later on.
||1.5 GB (excluding swap space)
||At least 256 MB
2.b. The Gentoo Installation CDs
The Gentoo Installation CDs are bootable CDs which contain a
self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet.
Gentoo's Minimal Installation CD
The Minimal Installation CD is called install-hppa-minimal-<release>.iso and
takes up around 124 MB of diskspace. You can use this
Installation CD to install Gentoo, but only with a working Internet
The Stage3 Tarball
A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment, suitable
to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this manual.
Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of three
stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
the Gentoo FAQ on How
do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?
2.c. Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD
Downloading and Burning the Installation CD
You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
You can download any of the Installation CDs from one of our mirrors. The Installation CDs are located in
the releases/hppa/2008.0/installcd/ directory.
Inside that directory you'll find ISO files. Those are full CD images which you
can write on a CD-R.
In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can check
its SHA-2 checksum and compare it with the SHA-2 checksum we provide (such as
install-hppa-minimal-<release>.iso.DIGESTS). You can check the SHA-2
checksum with the sha512sum tool under Linux/Unix or Checksums calculator for Windows.
The tool will attempt to verify the checksums in the list, even if the checksum
is made with a different algorithm. Therefore, the output of the command might
give both success (for SHA checksums) and failures (for other checksums). At
least one OK needs to be provided for each file.
Code Listing 3.1: Verifying the SHA-2 checksum
$ sha512sum -c <downloaded iso.DIGESTS>
If you get the message that no properly formatted SHA checksum was found, take a
look at the DIGESTS file yourself to see what the supported checksums are.
Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
.asc). Download the signature file and obtain the public keys whose
key ids can be found on the release
engineering project site.
Code Listing 3.2: Obtaining the public key
$ gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 96D8BF6D 2D182910 17072058
Now verify the signature:
Code Listing 3.3: Verify the files
$ gpg --verify <downloaded iso.DIGESTS.asc>
$ sha512sum -c <downloaded iso.DIGESTS.asc>
To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss cdrecord and
K3B here; more information can be found in our Gentoo FAQ.
With cdrecord, you simply type cdrecord dev=/dev/sr0 <downloaded iso
file> (replace /dev/sr0 with your CD-RW drive's device
With K3B, select Tools > Burn CD Image. Then you can locate
your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click Start.
Booting the Installation CD
If you have problems booting the Installation CD or any other media, please
PA-RISC Linux Boot HOWTO.
Boot your HPPA system. During the boot process, you will see a message similar
to the following:
Code Listing 3.4: HPPA boot message
Searching for Potential Boot Devices.
To terminate search, press and hold the ESCAPE key.
When this message appears, press and hold the Esc-key until an option menu
appears. This can take a while, be patient. By default, you should enter the
BOOT_ADMIN console. If you receive an option menu, choose Enter Boot
Administration mode to enter the BOOT_ADMIN console. You should now have an
Put the Gentoo Installation CD in the CD-ROM. If you do not know the SCSI ID of
your CD-ROM drive, your PA-RISC station will search for it when you issue the
Code Listing 3.5: Searching for SCSI ID
Searching for Devices with Bootable Media.
To terminate search, please press and hold the ESCAPE key.
Your PA-RISC station will now display all the available boot media. This is an
example result of this command:
Code Listing 3.6: Available boot media
Device Selection Device Path Device Type and Utilities
P0 scsi.5.0 TOSHIBA CD-ROM XM-3301TA
P1 scsi.2.0 COMPAQ ST32550N
P2 lan.0010a7-06d1b6.3.6 server
To boot from a CD-ROM you need the accompanying Device Path. For instance, if we
want to boot from the TOSHIBA CD-ROM in the above example, we would need to type
the following command:
Code Listing 3.7: Booting from a CD-ROM
> boot scsi.5.0 ipl
The ipl keyword (Initial Program Loader) tells palo (the PA-RISC boot
LOader) to enter interactive mode. This will allow you to change, for example,
the kernel boot parameters.
When the boot is successful, palo will start in interactive mode:
Code Listing 3.8: PALO Interactive Mode
Boot path initialized.
Attempting to load IPL.
palo ipl 1.5 root@hope Sat Apr 23 18:06:47 CEST 2005
Boot image contains:
0/vmlinux32 6241293 bytes @ 0x3904000
0/vmlinux64 8352719 bytes @ 0x3ef8000
0/ramdisk 1007589 bytes @ 0x105800
Information: No console specified on kernel command line. This is normal.
PALO will choose the console currently used by firmware (serial).Current command line:
0/vmlinux initrd=initrd TERM=linux root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc cdroot looptype=squashfs loop=/livecd.squashfs hda=scsi console=ttyS0
<#> edit the numbered field
'b' boot with this command line
'r' restore command line
'l' list dir
These parameters are suitable for most situations.
If you need extra features you must add the appropriate keyword(s) to the end of
the command line. To add a keyword, edit the last field, add a space and type
your keyword. The only implemented keywords as of now are cdcache which
tells the Installation CD to load itself into RAM, allowing you to unmount the
CD, and noload=module1[,module2[,...]] which allows you to explicitly
disable loading of particular modules.
Code Listing 3.9: Adding hdb=scsi as boot option
(or 'b' to boot with this command line)? 9
Now that you have tweaked your kernel boot params, boot it.
Code Listing 3.10: Booting the kernel
(or 'b' to boot with this command line)? b
You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
started on by pressing Alt-F1.
Now continue with Extra Hardware
Extra Hardware Configuration
When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may
not auto-load the kernel
modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
In the next example we try to load the 8139too module (support for
certain kinds of network interfaces):
Code Listing 3.11: Loading kernel modules
# modprobe 8139too
Optional: User Accounts
If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
environment or you want to chat using irssi without root privileges (for
security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
the root password.
To change the root password, use the passwd utility:
Code Listing 3.12: Changing the root password
To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
its password. We use useradd and passwd for these tasks.
In the next example, we create a user called "john".
Code Listing 3.13: Creating a user account
# useradd -m -G users john
# passwd john
You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
Code Listing 3.14: Changing user id
# su - john
Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing
If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook during the installation, make sure you
have created a user account (see Optional: User
Accounts). Then press Alt-F2 to go to a new terminal.
You can view the handbook using links, once you have completed the
Configuring your Network chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on
the Internet to view the document):
Code Listing 3.15: Viewing the Online Documentation
# links http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-hppa.xml
You can go back to your original terminal by pressing Alt-F1.
Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon
If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
(only do that if you fully trust that user).
To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
Code Listing 3.16: Starting the SSH daemon
# /etc/init.d/sshd start
If you (or other users) log on to the system, they will get a message that the
host key for this system needs to be confirmed (through what is called a
fingerprint). This is to be expected as it is the first time people log on
to the system.
However, later when your system is set up and you log on to the newly created
system, your SSH client will warn you that the host key has been changed. This
is because you now log on to - for SSH - a different server (namely your freshly
installed Gentoo system rather than the live environment you are on right now).
When you hit that warning, follow the instructions given on the screen then
to replace the host key on the client system.
To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
the chapter on Configuring your Network.
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